CHAPTER II

ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    1. Welcoming the OSCE's Helsinki +40 process as an opportunity to reflect upon the enduring relevance of the Helsinki Final Act, to take inspiration from the spirit of co-operation that infused those negotiations 40 years ago, and to reinforce as well as update OSCE commitments, particularly in the economic and environmental dimension,
    2. Reiterating the central importance attached to the Second Dimension in the Helsinki Final Act and pointing out that through trade, industry, science and technology, real co- operation manifests itself concretely and pragmatically throughout the OSCE area every day,
    3. Recognizing that there are issues of vital concern today that the original drafters of the Helsinki Final Act could not have anticipated, including the need to develop a common, multi-stakeholder approach to cyber security and Internet freedom, as well as border security and migration, and economic and environmental activities in the OSCE area,
    4. Reiterating the Helsinki Final Act's recognition that "the protection and improvement of the environment" is a task "of major importance to the well-being of peoples and the economic development of all countries" and that many environmental problems "can be solved effectively only through close international co-operation",
    5. Recognizing that environmental challenges such as biodiversity loss, ocean acidification, air pollution and climate change require world leaders to make compromises at an international level, and that in this regard the Helsinki +40 process can serve as a powerful reminder of the spirit of co-operation that brought together East and West in the context of the Cold War,
    6. Mindful of the 10th anniversary of the adoption by the Ministerial Council in Maastricht in 2003 of the OSCE Strategy Document for the Economic and Environmental Dimension and its important role in strengthening the economic and environmental dimension of the OSCE,
    7. Bearing in mind that 2012 was one of the warmest years on record and that, at the global level, world leaders face the challenge of advancing a common international plan of action to address climate change within the UNFCCC process,
    8. Alarmed at the persisting economic recession in Europe and the rapidly rising unemployment, in particular among young people,
    9. Drawing attention to the problem of glaciers, which are an important source of fresh water and an indispensable element of nature,
    10. Troubled that the ongoing economic and financial crisis and the austerity-driven spending cuts taken as a remedy for this crisis have not had the anticipated positive impact on the overall economic recovery and have negatively affected, in particular, economically vulnerable populations such as women, minorities and migrants,
    11. Concerned at the increasing migration and brain drain of highly-skilled young people, in particular, from the countries of southern Europe, and at the negative impact that adverse economic environment factors have on efforts to develop a comprehensive and long-term migration management strategy,
    12. Disturbed that the effects of reckless and non-regulated financial speculation by banks and hedge funds are fuelling food price rises which have disproportionate impact on the global poor, and when combined with stagnant wages can be destabilizing to societies and even deadly,
    13. Welcoming innovative approaches to tackle environmental challenges while promoting economic growth, including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Green Growth Strategy, the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and the Global Green Growth Institute,
    14. Reiterating the OSCE PA's call in the Monaco Declaration to encourage increased investment in the green economy, the development of energy-saving technologies and renewable sources of energy, as well as the incorporation of environmentally-friendly methods of economic activity to assist economic recovery,
    15. Welcoming the holding of the OSCE's second annual Economic and Environmental Dimension Implementation Meeting on 16 and 17 October 2012,
    16. Commending the work of the OSCE field presences in the areas of energy supplies, energy efficiency, water management and other pressing environmental concerns,
    17. Reiterating that water is essential for life and that a suitable supply of high-quality water is a prerequisite for economic and social progress,
    18. Recalling that a study commissioned by the OSCE in 2010 described possible security implications of climate change, including the likelihood that it will alter the socio-economic foundations of society,
    19. Stressing that since large cities are responsible for two thirds of global energy consumption and 70 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, city governments are well positioned to bring about policies that can most swiftly bring about changes that affect millions of people,

The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:

    1. Invites the OSCE and the OSCE participating States to give thorough consideration to issues relating to the economic and environmental dimension within the framework of the Helsinki +40 process in order to further strengthen close and mutually beneficial co-operation aimed at building a genuine Euro-Atlantic and Eurasian security community;
    2. Supports the work of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, recognizing that increased urbanization in our region demands effective community planning and mass transit investments which are imperative to address global climate change and ensure future quality of life for the majority of our citizens;
    3. Welcomes the establishment of the Global Green Growth Institute as a fully-fledged international organization and commends OSCE participating States Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom for their leadership in founding this organization and further welcomes the EXPO 2017 in Astana, entitled "Future Energy";
    4. Urges the OSCE and all participating States to consider joining the Global Green Growth Institute;
    5. Stresses the high potential of the green economy as a major driving force for energy efficiency and security, sustainable economic growth and job creation, poverty reduction and the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals;
    6. Urges OSCE parliamentarians and other policymakers to utilize the OECD's Green Growth Strategy, including its Study Papers, which provide concrete recommendations and measurement tools for achieving economic growth and development, while at the same time ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies;
    7. Stresses the urgent need to introduce measures for effective growth, with particular focus on small- and medium-sized enterprises as the driving force of the European economy, through incentive-based policies that promote entrepreneurship and innovation, facilitate SME networking and access to global markets, reduce regulatory burdens and red tape and stimulate employment;
    8. Stresses that, at a time when the crisis is causing great difficulties, in particular with the rise in unemployment in many countries, all instruments of economic policy aimed at promoting growth and employment must be used in parallel with the OECD Green Growth Strategy;
    9. Stresses that green growth strategies should not lead to unequal conditions for economic development and trade;
    10. Concerned by the risks posed by austerity policies on social peace and security, stresses that fiscal consolidation must go hand in hand with a sound strategy for growth and employment;
    11. Emphasizes the importance of seeking new paths to economic growth particularly by taking meaningful measures to combat corruption, improve governance, increase co-ordination of fiscal policies, and strengthen education and training in the widest possible range of areas, and promote social cohesion while safeguarding the social, economic and cultural rights of the most vulnerable members of society;
    12. Recommends that OSCE participating States introduce financial transaction taxes on stock trading and other financial purchases such as high-frequency trade to help to make short-term speculation more expensive and generate significant revenue for individual States, which is urgently needed to carry out forward-looking projects, promote growth and build a fair economy, and could be used for these purposes;
    13. Calls upon OSCE participating States to improve people's living conditions, and in particular to include minorities, in order to avoid migration driven by impoverishment in the OSCE area and beyond and thus ensure that tensions do not arise between participating States;
    14. Recalls the benefits of promoting women's economic autonomy for the prosperity of their families and countries, which is achieved by facilitating access to education, training, childcare, credit and financing and legal services, as well as by initiating and implementing legislation and programmes related to pay equity and employment, particularly in non-traditional sectors;
    15. Urges the governments in the OSCE area to ensure, through transnational co-operation, the protection and sustainable use of water, and to fight against land degradation and soil contamination;
    16. Encourages participating States to protect and preserve water resources and glaciers by preventing the impact of industry and other factors;
    17. Calls upon OSCE participating States, in the spirit of Helsinki, to find the necessary political will to make the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, taking place in Warsaw on 11-22 November 2013, a fruitful meeting that leads to concrete action to address climate change and binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions;
    18. Calls upon the OSCE participating States and the OSCE executive structures to take further action to mobilize the provision of financial resources, technology transfer, technical assistance, capacity-building and the advancement of environmentally sound energy technologies;
    19. Calls for OSCE field operations to receive all the funding they need in order to carry out their vital work in the economic and environmental dimension;
    20. Points to the need for the OSCE to utilize the Helsinki +40 process in order to further strengthen co-operation with the Mediterranean Partners for Co-operation, especially in the economic and environmental dimension, by acting as a dynamic mediator in support of their efforts to promote growth and attract investment, in line with their appeal at the Dublin Ministerial Council;
    21. Supports the Ukrainian Chairmanship's prioritizing of energy efficiency and renewable energy and environmental aspects of energy security as issues that unite OSCE participating States;
    22. Invites the OSCE participating States to co-operate closely in establishing technical know-how on the use of technologies for new and renewable energy sources;
    23. Encourages the Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities and other OSCE executive structures to continue to facilitate a global energy transformation in the OSCE region and to raise awareness of the importance of energy for sustainable development, including the need for the promotion of new and renewable sources of energy and the increased role they can play in energy supplies;
    24. Encourages the Office of the Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities to publicize the findings of future Economic and Environmental Dimension Implementation Meetings by publishing summaries of the meetings on the Internet;
    25. Urges the OSCE to develop confidence-building measures to reduce the risk of cyber conflicts and to promote a culture of cyber security while taking into account participating States' views on transnational information and communication technology;
    26. Endorses an inclusive, transparent, multi-stakeholder approach to Internet governance issues such as cyber security and cyber crime, online freedom of expression and privacy;
    27. Draws attention to the Joint Communication of the Commission and the High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of 7 February 2013 ("Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union – An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace"), as well as the Decision of the Council of Heads of CIS Governments of 28 September 2012 "On the strategy of co-operation of the CIS member States in building and developing the information society and the Action Plan for its implementation up to 2015;
    28. Calls upon OSCE permanent representatives to consider the new challenges of cyber security, Internet freedom, border security, migration and climate change in their deliberations on the Helsinki +40 process.