CHAPTER II

ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT

    1. Recognizing the foresight of the Helsinki Final Act’s emphasis on energy co-operation, food and water security, as well as “changes in climate,” and recalling the pledge that participating States made in 1975 to utilize “every suitable opportunity to co-operate in the field of environment,” including on issues related to water supply, air pollution and land use,

    2. Stressing the relevance of the Helsinki Final Act’s call to increase the effectiveness of common efforts by participating States towards the solution of major world economic problems and the need for promoting stable and equitable international economic relations, and recognizing, in this context, the importance of further developing economic integration projects in the OSCE region,

    3. Highlighting the importance that the Helsinki Final Act attached to “the progressive development, codification and implementation of international law as one means of preserving and enhancing the human environment, including principles and practices, as accepted by them, relating to pollution and other environmental damage,”

    4. Recognizing food as a fundamental right as expressed by Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and recalling OSCE PA resolutions on food security adopted at the 2009 and 2014 Annual Sessions,

    5. Welcoming the OSCE Ministerial Council decision No. 5/14 on the prevention of corruption adopted at the 21st OSCE Ministerial Council in Basel, Switzerland,

    6. Welcoming the Swiss and Serbian OSCE Chairmanships’ prioritization of sustainable water management in their joint 2014-15 work plan, as well as the efforts of the Office of the Co-ordinator of Economic and Environmental Activities (OCEEA) in promoting a comprehensive security approach to water governance,

    7. Welcoming the opportunity provided by Expo Milano 2015, being held in Milan, Italy, under the theme “Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life,” to address problems of nutrition and planetary resources with a view towards opening dialogue between international actors on these challenges,

    8. Noting that the end of 2015 marks the target date for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and welcoming the fact that many MDGs have already been met, including on reducing poverty and increasing access to improved drinking water sources, while other MDG targets are within reach, including the goal of reducing hunger and increasing access to technologies and health services,

    9. Supporting, along with the United Nations Secretary-General, the proposal by the President of Tajikistan to launch a new international Decade for Action: “Water for sustainable development” (2015-2025) following the International Decade for Action: “Water for life” (2005-2015),

    10. Stressing the importance of ensuring that women have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership of and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources,

    11. Reiterating the OSCE PA 2014 Baku Declaration’s call for OSCE participating States to continue working towards a new universal climate agreement ahead of the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 21) being held from 30 November to 11 December 2015 in Paris, France,

    12. Recognizing that advances in research on the causes of global pollinator decline and its threat to the global food supply demonstrates that parasite resistance has diminished due to the use of some pesticides, fungicides and other chemicals in agriculture,

    13. Recalling the Baku Declaration’s emphasis on the burden that economic migration has placed particularly on Southern European States and the tragic loss life associated with the dangerous journeys these migrants make in vessels that are often unseaworthy,

    14. Urging participating States to fight migrant-smuggling carried out through their territory or through areas under their de facto control and reiterating the need for the OSCE to act as a facilitator of co-operation in this regard,

    15. Also noting the recent spike in irregular migration in North America, including by unaccompanied minors, and the considerable difficulties this poses to border communities,

The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly:

    1. Calls on all OSCE participating States to redouble their efforts, in the spirit of Helsinki, to identify and pursue comprehensive solutions to our common environmental and economic challenges, including food, energy and water security, climate change, migration and improved management and oversight of financial institutions and women’s economic empowerment;

    2. Recognizes the need to develop and support co-operation between various integration processes and structures in the OSCE region, with the aim of establishing a common economic space consistent with the obligations enshrined in the Helsinki Final Act and the Astana Commemorative Declaration of 2010;

    3. Urges the OSCE and its participating States to promote international standards and formats of good governance, fight corruption, combat financing of terrorism, boost state and private investment in environmentally friendly industries, the development of a green economy and implement alternatives to austerity that emphasize social cohesion and economic growth;

    4. Invites participating States and OSCE parliamentarians to conduct a gender-based analysis of national economic policies, budgets and spending to ensure they provide equal benefits for women and men;

    5. Implores participating States to pursue policies on the local, national and regional levels to take preventive measures, mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as to forge bilateral and multilateral agreements toward this end, while continuing to negotiate a new universal climate accord with binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for final agreement at the COP 21 in Paris, France;

    6. Urges participating States to place climate change high on their political agendas, particularly within the framework of the G7 and G20 meetings, as well as of the United Nations General Assembly, and to support a low level carbon emission economy resilient to climate change and to disasters through development co-operation initiatives;

    7. Considers water an indispensable element of national, regional and international security, an essential strategic resource that should serve as a basis for co-operation rather than competition;

    8. Urges the OSCE and its participating States to maintain and increase their efforts to facilitate negotiations between the participating States, in particular in Central Asia, concerning agreements on shared water-resource management and on regional energy policies;

    9. Emphasizes that co-operation on transboundary water governance can serve as a confidence-building measure, particularly in situations of conflict and in the absence of bilateral relations, and encourages participating States to use the OSCE as a platform of co-operation in this regard;

    10. Calls on the OSCE and its participating States to develop best practices on reducing wasteful water use, upgrading irrigation techniques, promoting less water-intensive agricultural practices, encouraging a co-operative approach to sharing water resources, and protecting water resources from all forms of pollution, including the pollution of mountain glaciers and groundwater contamination associated with fracking;

    11. Urges participating States to commit in principle and practice to reducing food waste and ensuring food security, encouraging co-operation between farmers, producers, and distributors to allow for better projections of consumer demand, and promoting agricultural cluster development and sustainable forms of agriculture and food production in light of climate change;

    12. Encourages energy producer and consumer countries to promote greater balance in the distribution of energy resources, promote transparency in the extractive industries, adopt energy-efficiency measures at local and national levels and reduce energy consumption, pursue scientific and technological advances in energy generation;

    13. Calls on parliamentarians of OSCE participating States to ensure robust regulations and oversight of the financial sector and to promote economic policies that invest in scientific research, renewable energy technologies, green-growth development, energy-saving technology, infrastructure improvements, and to spare no efforts in sectors such as transport and the construction industry, where improved energy efficiency can be achieved, by developing and using new, renewable and alternative sources of energy;

    14. Recommends the introduction of financial transaction taxes on stock trading and other financial purchases, which would both generate significant public revenue and curb short term speculation;

    15. Acknowledges the negative role played by short-term speculation in the stability of financial markets and economies worldwide, and strongly recommends reinforcing the governance of the financial sector by strengthening national and international institutions responsible for financial oversight;

    16. Urges participating States to prioritize legislative and administrative action to mitigate the threat to the global food supply posed by identified triggers of global pollinator decline;

    17. Urges the participating States to be committed to effectively counteracting root causes of involuntary migration in all countries, with a particular focus on improved living conditions and personal security, democratization, political stability and the respect for human rights and equality for all;

    18. Encourages the OSCE and its participating States to develop and share best practices on managing migration, including its economic and social effects, with the aim of alleviating the disproportionate burden assumed by some countries;

    19. Urges the OSCE to use the Helsinki +40 process to strengthen economic co-operation with its Mediterranean Partners to promote growth and attract investment in the Mediterranean region.